WPLG-TV(PEMBROKE PINES, Fla.) -- A 1-year-old boy died after being left in a stifling hot car for over 8 hours, officials said.
The 17-month-old was found in a car in a Pembroke Pines, Florida, parking lot Friday, Pembroke Pines Sgt. Adam Feiner told ABC News Saturday, adding that he’d been there for 8.5 hours.
The temperature climbed to 93 degrees that day. The heat index -- or what it feels like with humidity -- was 103 degrees.
Police and fire crews responded around 5 p.m., police said, but CPR wasn't effective and the boy was later pronounced dead.
"Leaving a child inside a car is a year-long hazard, but it is especially deadly during the summer months when temperatures can climb above 100 degrees within minutes," the Pembroke Pines police said in a statement. "Always double check your vehicle after you park for loved ones or pets.
"Our prayers go out to the deceased and their family during this difficult time," the police department added.
The boy's parents had not been charged as of Saturday morning, Feiner said.
The family’s name has not been released and authorities did not immediately respond Monday to ABC News’ request for comment.
Children's bodies heat up much faster than adults and children's internal organs begin to shut down after their core body temperature reaches 104 degrees, according to a report from the National Safety Council.
On an 86-degree day, for example, it would take only about 10 minutes for the inside of a car to reach a dangerous 105 degrees, the report added.
This marks the 24th child to die in a hot car in the United States this year, according to the organization KidsAndCars.org, and the second child to die this way in Florida in 2018.
Florida ranks No. 2 in the country for child hot-car fatalities, the organization said, with 89 deaths since 1992.
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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- While it can be hard to navigate the evolving world of insect repellent and know what chemicals are safe to be lathering on your children, it's also imperative that you remember the bug spray if your family is spending time outdoors this summer.
Everyone knows mosquito bites can be a nuisance, but what they may not realize is that insect-borne diseases from mosquito, flea and tick bites have also tripled in recent years, according to a 2018 analysis from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Dr. Whitney Bowe, a dermatologist and the medical director of integrative dermatology, aesthetics and wellness at Advanced Dermatology, P.C., broke down everything you need to know for "Good Morning America" when shopping for or applying bug sprays.
Initially, Bowe recommends looking for one of three active ingredients in sunscreen, which she based on the most recent tests done by Consumer Reports. The ingredients to look for are DEET, oil of lemon eucalyptus, or picaridin. All three are safe when used as directed, even for pregnant women, according to Bowe.
In addition, the same way we look for an SPF number when buying sunscreen, Bowe recommends looking for a concentration number when purchasing insect repellent. For DEET, you want to look for products between 15 and 30 percent -- that’s the sweet spot that gives you the best efficacy while minimizing potential risks and side effects.
For picaridin, 20 percent is the magic number, but you want to make sure it's in spray form because the picaridin lotions and wipes often didn’t work as well. And for oil of lemon eucalyptus, they found that a spray with 30 percent concentration performed very well.
Here, Bowe breaks down everything you need to know about buying and applying bug spray, and answers some of the most commonly-asked questions about insect repellents.
Q: What’s the safest way to apply bug spray to my face?
Dr. Bowe: I recommend that you spray the bug spray into your hands first and then smooth onto your face. I do not recommend that you let young children handle bug spray on their own. Instead, follow the same spray-into-your-hands technique and then smooth onto your child’s skin, being careful to avoid skin close to the eyes or the mouth. I like to pat a small amount on my daughter’s forehead and cheeks only. Children often put their hands into their mouths or touch their eyes, so it’s best not to apply bug spray on your child’s hands because you don’t want to risk accidental ingestion or contact with the eyes.
Q: If I have a cut, wound, or irritated skin, is it safe to apply bug spray to the area?
Dr. Bowe: I do not recommend applying repellents on broken or irritated skin. Be mindful of cuts and scrapes on your children as well! When the skin is broken or irritated, the bug spray ingredients can penetrate more deeply and that’s when you run into side effects such as rashes on the skin.
Q: Should I use a combination sunscreen plus bug spray product? It seems like this would be so easy because it’s a two-in-one!
Dr. Bowe: Even though this seems like such an easy and time-efficient approach, I do not recommend using combination products in this situation. The reason is because sunscreen is typically reapplied every two hours in order to effectively protect your skin. However, bug spray most often should not be reapplied this frequently. So, you might be overexposed to the chemicals in the bug repellent if you use such a combination product. Furthermore, some studies suggest that insect repellent can actually decrease the effect of sunscreen by up to 30 percent!
Q: At what ages is it safe to use DEET and Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus on children?
Dr. Bowe: The American Academy of Pediatrics and the CDC do not recommend using DEET on children under 2 months old. Concentration is key here, particularly when using this ingredient on children. For DEET, I recommend looking for products between 15 percent and 30 percent so that you are optimizing efficacy while minimizing risks. Of course, follow the guidelines on your particular repellent. In contrast, the American Academy of Pediatrics does not recommend using Oil of Eucalyptus on children under 3 years old! That’s a very large leap from two months and is often surprising to parents, given that oil of Lemon Eucalyptus is a natural option. I recommend that my patients use a spray containing a 30 percent concentration, as this is the level that tested as most effective, according to Consumer Reports.
Q: What are the risks associated with using DEET?
Dr. Bowe: Many of my patients -– and even my family members -– are very concerned about the dangers of using DEET. According to a Consumer Reports survey, only one-third of adults believed that DEET was a safe option for adult usage, and even fewer adults believed that it was safe for use on children. These concerns are fueled by news stories about death and toxicity arising from DEET usage. However, according to Consumer Reports, it is estimated that since 1960, the incidence of seizures linked to potential DEET exposure was one per 100 million uses. Many of the reported cases of death or seizure actually involved a misuse of the products, including ingestion. When it comes to selecting bug repellents for your family and loved ones, your comfort level is key -– this is something I always tell my patients. The most important thing is to educate yourself about the facts and studies surrounding these options and to select the one that is the best fit for your personal beliefs and preferences. However, I would not recommend letting fear in the absence of facts guide your decisions when it comes to protecting your family from insect-borne illnesses.
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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- While marijuana is illegal under federal law, a patchwork of state laws across the country determines where you can and cannot legally smoke pot.
Vermont’s law legalizing the recreational use of marijuana went into effect on July 1.
After Oklahoma’s ballot initiative, the legalization of both medical and recreational marijuana is on the ballot in several other states this year. In November, an initiative to legalize recreational pot will be on the ballot in Michigan and an initiative to legalize medical marijuana will be on the ballot in Utah.
States where recreational marijuana is legal
With Vermont’s marijuana legalization law now in effect, nine states and the District of Columbia have now either legalized the sale of pot or decriminalized its use.
Colorado and Washington made history in 2012 as the first states in the nation to legalize recreational marijuana after voters in those states approved ballot initiatives. In both states, marijuana can be purchased and used recreationally by people over 21 years old, but it is still legal to smoke it in public space or drive under the influence of marijuana.
Since then, voters in five additional states have legalized both the sale and use of recreational marijuana: Oregon and Alaska in 2014 and Maine, Nevada and Massachusetts in 2016. Many of these states have also levied a tax on marijuana sales.
Pot sales began this year in California after voters also approved Proposition 64 in 2016. The state was the first to legalize medical marijuana in 1996.
The district attorney in San Francisco has retroactively applied the measure, tossing out thousands of marijuana convictions.
Washington, D.C. approved initiative 71 in 2014, which allows people over 21 to possess two ounces of pot, use it on private property, and give it as a gift. However, the sale of marijuana and its use in public spaces is still an illegal offense for which one can be arrested.
Vermont became the first state to legalize marijuana through a completely legislative process when its governor signed H.511 into law in January. Under the law, which went into effect on July 1, selling marijuana is still illegal in the state.
States where medical marijuana is legal
Oklahoma is the most recent state to legalize medical marijuana with the recent approval of State Question 788. After the ballot question was passed, Gov. Mary Fallin, who opposed the initiative, said in a press release that “this new law is written so loosely that it opens the door for basically recreational marijuana.”
The state is among the most conservative to legalize medical marijuana.
Since 1996, 21 other states have legalized medical marijuana. State laws vary in how tightly they regulate its sale and its use, although most only allow its use for specified conditions and require patients and their caregivers to have a licensed use card.
Most states have set up dispensaries to distribute medical marijuana, although several have restrictions the number of dispensaries and some only allow them to be nonprofits.
Delaware, Michigan, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Arizona extend legal protections to medical marijuana cardholders from other states.
Arizona, where the state’s medical marijuana initiatives narrowly passed, has one of the more strict set of restrictions on who can be granted a medical marijuana card. State courts struck down a law aimed at prohibiting college students from having medical marijuana cards, but in June they ruled that hashish isn’t included in the law.
Laws in New York and West Virginia still prohibit smoking pot. Both allow people to consume marijuana in pills or as vapor, while West Virginia also allows tinctures, topical creams and patches.
Louisiana’s medical marijuana laws go into effect in August. Ohio’s medical marijuana law goes into effect in September, while Arkansas’s dispensaries are expected to be operational next year after being paused for pending litigation.
States where most recreational and medicinal marijuana use is illegal
In 20 remaining states, marijuana use is completely illegal with most still classifying the drug as a schedule I narcotic as it is under the federal Controlled Substances Act.
Four states prohibit marijuana in all of its forms, while the remaining 16 allow the use of cannabidiol oil for medical research into its ability to treat epilepsy and other seizure disorders.
South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas and Idaho prohibit all marijuana use. In Idaho, a bill that would legalize cannabidiol oil was vetoed by Gov. C.L. “Butch” Otter in 2015.
States that allow cannabidiol oil range from Texas to Wyoming. Cannabidiol oil and other low THC products provide some of marijuana's medicinal benefits but won’t get you high.
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Courtesy Dawson Family(HENDERSON, Nev.) -- Hailey Dawson is on a mission.
The 8-year-old from Henderson, Nevada, wants to be the first person to throw out the first pitch at all 30 Major League Baseball stadiums across the US.
And, she's well on her way: On Thursday, she took the mound at Fenway Park, donning a Boston Red Sox uniform. The crowd went wild.
Thursday's pitch at Fenway Park marked No. 21, leaving just nine more to go. Last week, she threw out the first pitch at a Mets game and at Yankee Stadium too.
All of these pitches aren't just to get into the record books. They are also to raise awareness for Poland syndrome, a rare birth defect that caused her to be born without three fingers on her right hand and without a right pectoral muscle.
When she was 4, Hailey and her family began working with the engineering team at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. The team took a mold of Hailey's hand and used a 3-D printer to make a robotic arm. It was held together and controlled with fishing line.
The team refitted Hailey every few months as she grew. With physical therapy, she learned to write her name and then to throw a ball. Then, her baseball-loving family -- dad Greg, mom Yong and brother Zach -- got the idea about her throwing the first pitches.
Hailey threw the first pitch for a minor league team in Las Vegas in 2015. She threw the first pitch that year at Baltimore’s Camden Yards for her favorite team, the Orioles. She also threw the first pitch this year for the Washington Nationals at Nationals Park in Washington, D.C.
Each time, she meets with the players and then walks to the mound. Her effort is also helping to raise money for UNLV so that the team can create and donate hands similar to hers.
"I want people to know that if I can do it you can do it," she told ABC News Friday.
She plans to finish with the Angels on Sept. 16.
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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- People who survive Ebola may suffer "severe" neurological and psychiatric problems long after they recover from the virus, according to a new study published Wednesday.
Some cases of "post-Ebola syndrome" were so debilitating that the individual was left unable to participate in family life or even care for themselves, according to the study, which was published online at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infectious Diseases journal.
"We knew that a disease as severe as Ebola would leave survivors with major problems," said Janet Scott of the University of Liverpool, who co-led the research. "However, it took me aback to see young and previously active people who had survived, but were now unable to move half their bodies, or talk, or pick up their children."
The devastating Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa, between 2014 and 2016, killed more than 11,300 people.
The researchers in this study looked at notes on more than 300 Ebola survivors in Sierra Leone, one of the nations most affected during the region's epidemic. Of those, 34 patients who met neurologic criteria were then invited to take part in a joint neuro-psychiatric clinic in the capital Freetown in 2016. The group had full neurological examinations, psychiatric screening and specialist exams, including brain scans.
The depth of the patients' psychological and neurological issues became apparent as the researchers analyzed the results. Many survivors still experienced a wide range of symptoms, including chronic migraines and stroke, as well as depression and anxiety.
"We found a broad set of neurological and psychiatric symptoms, from minor to extremely severe and disabling, are present in Ebola survivors well over a year after discharge from hospital," said Patrick Howlett of King’s College London, a lead researcher on the study.
The most frequent neurological problems among the survivors studied were migraine-type headaches, stroke and nerve damage, while the most common psychiatric diagnoses were major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder, according to the study.
"Our findings suggest that there is also a need for better understanding of the psychiatric and psychological consequences of Ebola virus disease," said Stephen Sevalie, a psychiatrist at 34 Military Hospital in Freetown, where the clinic was based.
The study has shed new light on post-Ebola syndrome and the long-term effects the initial illness has had on these survivors' lives. Researchers said the findings highlight a need for doctors with specialized training to help the remaining survivors.
"Our findings support the need for larger, case-controlled studies," Scott said. "Post-Ebola syndrome is not going away, and those with the condition deserve better treatment."
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iStock/Thinkstock(WASHINGTON) -- In the first steps of introducing a new class of so-called "slaughter-free" meat, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) will host a public meeting on Thursday to discuss the phenomenon surrounding lab-grown meat, also referred to as “cultured meat” or “in vitro meat.”
Lab-grown meat is exactly what it sounds like, beef made straight from the test tube. Cultured meat is achieved by collecting the stem cells of animals and are multiplied using “non-traditional food technologies."
At Thursday's meeting, the FDA will face the following question: How does the government define and regulate a product like "cultured meat?"
The animal cell culture industry has been in development since the early 2000s but start-up companies believe they're ready to place the product on the market by 2020. FDA Chief Scott Gottlieb said in a statement that the technology for "cultured meat" could open the door to developing other unconventional food products.
The FDA, which oversees the safety of most foods, will make a case on Thursday for its right to oversight of the meat product over the U.S. Department of Agriculture, a government branch that regulates a majority of the meat and dairy industries.
"Under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, the FDA has jurisdiction over 'food,' which includes 'articles used for food' and 'articles used for components of any such article,'" the FDA wrote. "Thus, as a starting point, both substances used in the manufacture of these products of animal cell culture technology and the products themselves that will be used for food are subject to the FDA’s jurisdiction."
One of the only U.S. based companies developing "cultured meat" is based in San Francisco, Memphis Meats has been backed by Bill Gates and Tyson Foods. The company says they are making meat that is better for animals and uses significantly less land, water, and energy than traditional methods, according to the website.
Eric Schulze, vice president of product and regulation for Memphis Meats, told ABC News they look forward to participating in the meeting at FDA.
"Memphis Meats believes that stakeholders across government, including FDA and USDA, and the meat and poultry industries should work together to clarify how the existing regulatory framework applies to clean/cultured meat while supporting innovation," Schulze said.
A USDA spokesperson said the agency looks forward to working with the FDA on the issue, but no USDA representatives were listed on Thursday's meeting agenda.
"As these new products begin to emerge in the marketplace, we look forward to working with the FDA and the public to tackle these issues," the spokesperson said in a statement.
However, the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association (NCBA) says the USDA should regulate this new kind of meat. Danielle Beck, NCBA director of Government Affairs wrote in a statement that the group looks forward to their participation in the public meeting to advocate for the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), an agency of the USDA.
"The Food and Drug Administration’s announcement disregards the [...] USDA's significant scientific expertise and long-standing success in ensuring the safety of all meat and poultry products," Beck wrote in the statement. "Under the current regulatory framework, FDA plays an important role in terms of ensuring the safety of food additives used in meat, poultry, and egg products. All additives are initially evaluated for safety by FDA, but ultimately FSIS maintains primary jurisdiction."
Other organizations like the United State’s Cattlemen Association (USCA) have argued that "in-vitro meat" is not actually meat.
Earlier this year, the USCA filed a petition to the USDA arguing that cultured meat should not be labeled as meat because of nature of how it is made.
"Such products, which are not derived from animals born, raised, and harvested in the traditional manner, should not be permitted to be marketed as 'beef,' or more broadly as 'meat' products," USCA stated.
The FDA hopes to address these concerns in the meeting and evaluate "new areas of food innovation and establishing guidelines on how new technology can safely advance."
The federal agency is now taking public comment on this matter here.
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iStock/Thinkstock(WASHINGTON) -- President Trump's appointment of a new, conservative Supreme Court justice could have a major impact on a number of federal laws, but pro-abortion rights groups fear Roe v. Wade could be one of the biggest to be overturned.
The landmark abortion case has been the law of the land for more than 45 years now, but the shifting balance of the nation's highest court after the retirement of its longtime swing vote, Justice Anthony Kennedy, may mean more solidly conservative rulings in the future.
Earlier this week, Trump announced he had tapped U.S. Circuit Court Judge Brett Kavanaugh as his latest Supreme Court justice pick. The question of abortion rights came up when Kavanaugh was put forward for his position on the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals in 2006. At the time, he said that the existing standard should continue.
"On the question of Roe v. Wade, if confirmed to the D.C. Circuit, I would follow Roe v. Wade faithfully and fully. That would be binding precedent of the Court. It’s been decided by the Supreme Court," Kavanaugh said during the 2006 hearing.
But when Sen. Chuck Schumer, D-N.Y., pressed Kavanaugh to give his personal opinion of Roe, Kavanaugh did not directly answer, instead saying that the Supreme Court had upheld Roe "repeatedly" and that it would not be "appropriate" to share his own views.
Pro-abortion rights groups are still concerned that as a whole, a more conservative-leaning court would be open to the idea of overturning Roe.
Here’s a look back at the controversial court case that guaranteed women the right to safe and legal ways to end unwanted pregnancies, and the possible legal landscape for abortion rights moving forward.
Who was Jane Roe?
The identity of the woman at the heart of the landmark case was initially kept private, with the name Jane Roe used in the court battle. Roe was later identified as Norma McCorvey, who died in February 2017.
McCorvey's journey to becoming Jane Roe began after she tried to have an abortion while pregnant with her third child. It was 1969, and McCorvey was 22 and living in Texas. She initially claimed to have been raped, which might have allowed her to have an abortion legally since Texas law made exceptions for cases of rape and incest. But she later publicly acknowledged that had been a lie.
McCorvey was put in touch with two Texas lawyers who were building a case against state laws that banned abortion and her case was attached to their suit as it moved through the court system.
The original case
Roe v. Wade was first argued in December 1971, re-argued in October 1972, and decided on Jan. 22, 1973, when it became the law of the land.
The court ruled in favor of Roe, with a vote of seven justices siding with her and two against. Justice Harry Blackmun wrote the majority opinion, saying that an individual’s right to privacy, as enumerated in different forms in both the Ninth and Fourteenth Amendments, is “broad enough to encompass a woman's decision whether or not to terminate her pregnancy.”
The two justices who opposed legalizing abortion were Justice Byron White, who wrote the dissenting opinion, and Justice William Rehnquist.
In his dissent, White wrote that the majority's opinion “values the convenience of the pregnant mother more than the continued existence and development of the life or potential life that she carries.”
The ruling effectively prohibited states from banning abortion before a fetus could be considered viable outside of the womb.
But the ruling also said that “a state can regulate abortions prior to viability so long as it doesn’t place an undue burden on the woman's right to abortion,” Erwin Chemerinsky, a dean and law professor at the University of California, Berkeley, told ABC News.
That part of the decision allows states to prohibit abortions after viability, except in certain cases.
But the ruling did not come in time for the real Roe to terminate her pregnancy. McCorvey gave birth to her third child, whom she put up for adoption.
McCorvey later went public and wrote an autobiography in 1994 expressing her support for a woman's right to choose to terminate a pregnancy.
She later reversed her position after undergoing a political and religious conversion.
Roe v. Wade’s legal legacy
The decision had far-reaching implications, changing the medical landscape of the United States immediately, said Heather Shumaker, senior counsel for the National Women’s Law Center.
“There was a real patchwork of laws throughout the states and your access to abortion really depended on what state you were in,” Shumaker told ABC News.
Chemerinsky said that the landmark case is "part of a series of decisions about autonomy with regard to medical rights … but Roe itself is just about abortion rights."
The Roe v. Wade decision has also played an important role in subsequent Supreme Court cases about regulations surrounding abortion rights.
In Planned Parenthood v. Casey, the court “said you can’t create an undue burden with those regulations” placed by states on women seeking abortions, Shumaker said.
"More recently, Whole Women’s Health v. Hellerstedt clarified the undue burden standard in Casey," Shumaker added.
That decision "was really saying the regulation has to actually confer a benefit and that benefit has to outweigh a burden that was created by the regulation," she explained.
The state of abortion rights today
A number of states have passed regulations restricting women's access to abortion in recent years. One law in Iowa would, if implemented, become the most restrictive abortion law in the country, banning abortions after the first six weeks of pregnancy. Some women may not know they are pregnant at that point.
Regulations have also forced clinics to close, and there are currently six states with only one abortion provider. Arkansas was briefly added to that list but an ongoing legal battle there means that there are still three abortion providers operating.
Legally-mandated waiting periods in which women have to wait a certain number of hours before they can undergo an abortion have also been passed recently. Earlier this month, the Iowa Supreme Court struck down a law that required a woman to undergo a 72-hour waiting period before obtaining an abortion. But there are five other states with 72-hour waiting periods in place, and the majority of states have waiting periods ranging from 18 hours to more than 72 hours, according to the Guttmacher Institute.
How the new court could impact abortion rights
Concerns from pro-abortion rights groups that Roe v. Wade will be overturned are not as simple as the court reexamining that 45-year-old case.
A legal challenge to Roe would likely come in the form of a case challenging current state-level restrictions on abortion, Shumaker said.
"So we would have to wait to see a case that makes its way up the pipeline to the Supreme Court before they would review Roe v. Wade," she added.
And that might not be far off, Shumaker said, adding that "there are quite a few cases in the pipeline already."
Chemerinsky also said that he thinks “Roe will be threatened” by a change in the Court’s ideological makeup, but it won’t be the only case to be challenged.
“I think that affirmative action could change, I think marriage equality for gays and lesbians could change,” he said, adding that there were “many” areas of law that could be changed with a new, conservative Supreme Court.
Kavanaugh is Trump's second appointment to the court less than two years into his presidency.
The debate over his appointment -- and the future of the court itself -- will continue as Kavanaugh meets with senators ahead of the required confirmation hearings.
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ABCNews.com(NEW YORK) -- Before a complicated rescue freed 12 boys and their coach, who were trapped inside a Thailand cave, the boys had written letters to their families requesting rich, home-cooked meals when they got out.
So far, doctors have only allowed them to have bland, low-calorie foods in order to help prevent a condition known as re-feeding syndrome.
Re-feeding syndrome is a potentially deadly condition that can occur when a person in a state of starvation is allowed to eat too many calories, too quickly.
Dr. Jennifer Chuang, an adolescent medicine specialist who treats patients with severe malnutrition requiring hospitalization, told ABC News that when you're starving the body's metabolism changes.
“When you’ve been starving for that long your whole body’s metabolism will change from using carbohydrates to using fats, proteins, and glycogen storages as sources of energy,” Chuang said.
The total amount of important electrolytes in the body, such as potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus, is also known to run low during prolonged starvation. These elements are essential to the body’s successful functioning.
As nutrients are added back into a starving person’s diet, electrolyte and fluid levels can shift in the body. According to Dr. Chuang, the changes can manifest as small accumulations of fluid around the eyes, in the legs, and other parts of the body or -- what’s more worrisome -- the accumulation of fluid around the heart that could lead to heart failure.
If the Thai boys were allowed to have their requested pad kaprao, or fried pork with basil, their blood levels of potassium, phosphorus and magnesium could drop so low they could face deadly cardiac arrhythmias –- in other words, their hearts could stop.
Instead, their team of physicians will likely take the approach health care providers working for the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), World Health Organization (WHO) abroad and even Chuang takes with her patients in Philadelphia: “Start low and go slow.” This method will allow the doctors to gradually allow the boys to eat more calories each day while closely monitoring their blood tests and overall clinical condition.
In her severely malnourished patients, who suffer from a variety of eating disorders leading to a similar starvation state, Chuang and her team have found, “it is generally safe to start at around 1,200 calories and then increase by 200 to 400 calories every day, but there are certainly people who would start lower and go even slower, especially given the circumstances these boys have been living in.”
Copyright © 2018, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.
iStock/ThinkstockBY: DR. MICHAEL MACINTYRE
(NEW YORK) -- It took hundreds of volunteers from all over the world to rescue the soccer team of 12 boys and their coach from a cave in Thailand.
Now that they’re out of the dangerous environment, their recovery process begins. Of course, treating their physical health first is important. But, doctors will also be concerned about the psychological effects of their ordeal and how it could affect their overall mental health.
"They are likely to have symptoms -- this is a terrifying, frightening event," Dr. Steven Berkowitz, co-chair of the terrorism and disaster issues committee for the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry told ABC News.
What happens after a trauma?
When something horrible happens, most people will have distress that fades overtime, though a percentage of people will continue to suffer for years as a result of their trauma.
According to the U.S. Department of Veterans’ Affairs National Center for PTSD, which studies trauma extensively in the military, there are four phases to a trauma: Impact, rescue, recovery and long-term reconstruction.
People react differently at each stage and mental health interventions can be made throughout the process.
What is PTSD?
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, or PTSD, is a mental health problem that may occur after experiencing a life-threatening event like combat or a natural disaster, according to the VA.
Major symptoms include relieving the event with nightmares, bad memories or "flashbacks," avoiding anything having to do with the situation and having negative feelings about the self and the world. People may also feel jittery, angry, startle easily or constantly be on the lookout for danger.
If these symptoms last longer than one month, it may be PTSD. When these symptoms are seen for less than a month after a trauma, mental health professionals will call it Acute Stress Disorder.
Diagnosing mental health issues
According to the American Psychological Association, after exposure to a life-threatening event, some degree of distress is almost universal among children and adolescents.
"I would do a broad behavioral health screen," Berkowitz said. "You are going to see things like anxiety, nightmares, intrusive thoughts in some if not all of the kids” He also recommends that the children should be monitored over time, as they could develop anxiety, PTSD, and depression later."
While we have no way of predicting how a specific child will react, common behavior changes during the acute recovery phase include the development of new fears, separation anxiety, sleep problems, feelings of sadness, poor concentration, poor school work, loss of interest in normal activities, anger and physical symptoms, such as indigestion or fatigue.
Adolescents will often start experimenting with drugs or alcohol to deal with negative feelings about a traumatic experience.
Will these children develop PTSD?
It’s impossible to predict. One person's initial reactions to a disaster do not necessarily predict long-term outcomes. Because the children spent a length of time in the cave, they may have developed symptoms.
"Your stress-response system doesn’t ever get a chance to go to baseline," Berkowitz explained. "You are always feeling stressed and on maximum alert. There is more opportunity for dysregulation when this occurs."
Risk factors for psychological distress include being close to the disaster -- which can include people involved with the rescue and family members -- and the person's previous mental health status. Community support, ongoing life stress, family, and prior traumatic experiences can also affect how someone responds to new trauma.
In a similar situation in 2010, nine of the 33 miners that spent 69 days trapped in a Chilean mine were receiving sick-leave for post-traumatic stress one year after their rescue, according to a New York Times study.
What is resilience?
Resilience is the ability to adapt in the face of trauma, threats or stress, according to the APA. It can be described as one’s ability to "bounce back" from a tough experience.
Most children and adolescents show resilience after a traumatic experience. This is especially true when the trauma is a single event. While some people have higher levels of resilience than others, it is a trait that can be learned and developed.
"For resilience in general, the young people that are going to make it, despite difficult circumstances, are the young people who have someone who stands beside them unwaveringly and unconditionally and hold them to high standards," Dr. Kenneth R. Ginsburg, an adolescent medicine specialist and co-director of the Center for Parent and Teen Communication at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, told ABC News.
Ginsburg is also the author of "Building Resilience in Children and Teens," published by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
The APA states that resilience can be developed by teaching children self-care, allowing them to return to a normal routine, helping them identify goals and find meaning in life and empowering them to help others.
How can children be helped after a traumatic event?
According to the APA, most children and adolescents will return to their previous selves after a few weeks or months, following a single traumatic event.
It is very important that that survivors have community support, especially from peers, parents, teachers, clergy, and coaches. Educating friends and family about what to expect from a child survivor can also help relieve unnecessary anxiety.
The 12 boys who were trapped in the cave appear to have a high level of support and, Ginsburg added, cultural healing mechanisms in Thailand may be different than those found in the United States.
Berkowitz warns that it is important not to turn the children into celebrities in the immediate aftermath of the event because "it interrupts the natural recovery by making them special and forcing them to process things in not a natural way."
Talking to children after a traumatic event
The words used with child trauma survivors can be extremely important.
"There are things not to say. Avoid phrases like ‘just get past it, it’s over,'" Ginsburg said. "This makes people feel guilty about their feelings and does not help them get past it."
"The right kind of statement is 'You’ll get through this and I’ll be with you as you do.' They might have to hear repeatedly that they are safe and the experience is over," he added. "They need to hear 'You are so strong. You are a survivor.' This is a moment in time they can learn that emotions are healthy. They can learn that human spirit and connection is what got through them."
Treatment options for the children who develop PTSD
If the children have symptoms of PTSD after recovering from the initial shock of the event, typical treatment options include meeting with a therapist for trauma-focused psychotherapy -- a form of exposure therapy.
Here, victims focus on the memory of the event and its meaning in a safe and secure environment until they no longer find it distressing or upsetting.
Berkowitz remains optimistic if the children do have long term mental health problems.
“The good news is we have great interventions and great medications,” he said.
Michael MacIntyre, M.D. is a psychiatry resident working with the ABC News medical unit.
Copyright © 2018, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.
ABC News(LOS ANGELES) -- Forest bathing does not require a swimsuit, an actual bath or even water.
It does require you to bathe, metaphorically speaking, in nature, with all your senses open.
If it sounds like a new-age trend, forest bathing, also known as forest therapy, is nothing new.
The healing practice is an ancient tradition, formalized and researched in the 1980s in Japan, where it is known as shinrin-yoku. In the United States, it is a wellness trend growing in popularity that is offered in green spaces from New York City to Los Angeles.
On a recent Saturday, nearly a dozen people gathered at the Los Angeles County Arboretum and Botanic Garden in Arcadia, California, to try forest bathing.
A certified guide, Ben Page, led the participants through what is essentially an active meditation practice in the forest.
The goal of the meditation is to not only create a peaceful space but to help participants find their own “authentic way of interacting with the land,” according to the Arboretum.
Forest bathers do not hike, jog or exercise their way through nature. They stay still in it, connecting with the land through all five senses.
"We train guides to go less than one mile in a three-hour walk," said Page, a forest guide trainer for the Association of Nature and Forest Therapy Guides and Programs. "The point is to slow down and relax."
Participants were invited throughout the course of the meditation to look at the tree canopies and the land surrounding them and reflect on what they were seeing and sensing, and how their bodies felt in the moment.
"The forest has an enlightened perspective on reality and it makes people feel at home and calm," Page told "GMA." "It's like if you remember when you're a kid and you just want a hug from a parent, that's what people feel when they come into the forest. It is this older being and it kind of folds you in."
Page encouraged participants at the Arboretum and Botanic Garden's walk to go through the forest and collect “treasures” that they then shared with the group.
“We’ve never done anything like this our lives,” said Donald Tapert, a local resident who attended with his family. “It’s enlightening.”
The benefits of forest bathing
Forest bathing is said to help boost mood and reduce stress.
Walking in a forest or park regularly significantly reduced blood pressure and dopamine levels compared to walks in a city with the same people, one small study found.
In another small study, forest bathing was found to significantly reduce pulse rate, significantly increase the score for "vigor" and decrease the scores for depression, fatigue, anxiety, and confusion among the men studied, researchers noted.
The effects of forest bathing are similar to what is seen in meditation, according to Dr. Philip Barr, an integrative medicine physician at Duke Integration Medicine in Durham, North Carolina.
"Engaging our senses is very healing in itself," he told "GMA." "There is something about the walking meditation that makes this process very healing."
Barr noted he likes prescribing forest bathing to his patients because it is a self-nurturing technique they can do on their anywhere at anytime. A pair of comfortable shoes is the only equipment required.
"We prescribe drugs to accomplish some of these things, to lower blood pressure and enhance our oxygen levels in the body and relax muscles," he said. "If we can accomplish these ends through a beautiful walk in nature and re-engaging with nature that brings us the sounds and scents and aromas and the vision of the woods and sun coming through the trees, that's very healing."
He added, "If people can get out anywhere from once a week to once a month, they can get ongoing benefits."
How to do it on your own
Here are Page's tips for forest bathing on your own.
Find trees and green space! It can be a park, a garden, your backyard.
Put away your phone and any other distractions.
Find a comfortable place to sit.
Sit and relax for 20 minutes (That's a baseline. You may find you need to go longer or shorter).
If you find your mind wandering, tune into your senses. Think of how the spot feels, what it smells like and what it looks like.
"You'll find you really start to fall in love with that one little place where you sit," Page said. "Part of developing a relationship with the land is paying attention and being there through seasons and different weather and seeing the how the land changes."Copyright © 2018, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.
ABC News(NEW YORK) -- If you're gluten-free, you just might go gaga for these new gluten-free cookies.
GoGo Quinoa makes gluten-free and vegan cookies from quinoa flour. The quinoa is sourced directly from Bolivia and all of GoGo Quinoa’s products are fully tested and certified NON-GMO, gluten-free, organic and kosher. They are also rich in protein, fiber and iron.
“This is the best quality of quinoa you can find out there,” Tamar Telfeyan, a company manager, told "GMA" at the Summer Fancy Food Show in New York City.
Over a third of Americans say they're on a specific diet this year, up from 29 percent in 2016, according to a recent Nielsen survey. Gluten-free diets have been a big trend and brands have been bringing products to market to cater to people with celiac disease or those who may have a gluten intolerance.
GoGo Quinoa’s quinoa cookies are individually wrapped and great to grab on the go or stick in a lunch box.
The best part is you can conveniently buy all these products on Amazon and the Canadian company is expanding to sell more products in the United States.Copyright © 2018, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.
Beth O'Brien(NEW YORK) -- When Beth O'Brien was feeding her 9-month-old daughter in 2017, she came across what she thought at the time was a clogged milk duct in her breast.
But after seeing doctors and undergoing exams, she would soon realize that her discovery was much more serious.
O'Brien, who works in a hospital, said she asked the lactation nurses at her job for tips to clear her clogged milk duct, but nothing worked. The 38-year-old mom of three then went for an ultrasound and, later, a biopsy which determined she had triple-negative breast cancer stage 2.
"Hearing cancer itself is pretty scary," O'Brien of Bennington, Nebraska, told "Good Morning America." "Researching it on the internet and seeing it was triple negative, which is an aggressive cancer that comes back, is an even bigger blow."
"[I had] more fear for my kids that I wouldn't be there for them," she added. "My kids are my number one. They were a blessing helping me through, and my two older boys were awesome and helping with their sister. We stepped up as a family and conquered it."
With the support of her husband and her three children, O'Brien underwent chemotherapy, a double mastectomy, more chemo and then 28 doses of radiation treatment.
O'Brien said she's now showing no signs of cancer and has a preventative hysterectomy scheduled.
Now, she's sharing her story in hopes women will perform more self-checks -- even if they're under 40 when rates of breast cancer are lower.
"I did breast exams every other month... not extensively," O'Brien said. "It's [a] blessing that I had my daughter and she was nursing at the time. I don't know [if] I would've discovered it if I wasn't nursing."
Dr. Roshni Rao, chief of breast surgery at New York-Presbyterian/Columbia University Irving Medical Center, said it's common for women under 40 to find their own cancerous tumors during self-exams since patients in that age group do not receive routine mammography.
Here are Rao's tips for self-examining your breasts.
How to self examine
Rao said to lie down on your back with one hand behind your head.
Move two fingers in a clockwise fashion starting around the nipple and continue around the entire breast area, one breast at a time and then the armpit area. Lead with one finger and follow with the other.
What you're feeling for
Really hard, fixed lumps that don't hurt.
"Things that hurt are almost always cysts and are benign, but things that don't hurt are almost always concerning," Rao said, adding that you will feel lumps and bumps no matter what.
"The main thing is to feel something different and you won't know that unless you intermittently examine your breasts," she added.
When to self-exam and how often
Rao recommends performing self-checks right after your period is over because that's when your breast tissue is going to be very calm and won't show nodularities due to hormone changes.
Rao suggests that starting at age 25, women should begin practicing self-exams. Women closer to the age of 40 should self-exam every two to three months and every month starting at the age of 40 is reasonable, she said.
"If you find something, watch it for one or two more weeks," Rao said. "If you're worried about it, we can check with an ultrasound."
Dr. Jennifer Ashton, ABC News' chief health and medical correspondent, said that skin changes in non-breastfeeding women like dimpling or indentation, abnormal nipple discharge, firm lumps, a sudden change in the nipple should all be discussed with a doctor.
For a breastfeeding woman, there are frequent changes in the breast -- the vast majority of which are not cancer. The bottom line is, "know your body," Ashton said.
"If you notice anything different, call your doctor [or] health care provider," Ashton added, noting that breast cancer is less common in young women but can occur and it's "better to be safe than sorry."
O'Brien agreed that women should be aware of their bodies and never be afraid to ask your doctor questions.
"If I can save somebody else or make them do something different in their lives then, by all means, I'll be out there to talk about it," she said.Copyright © 2018, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.
ABC NewsBY: PETRINA CRAINE
(CHIANG RAI, Thailand) -- As the rescue efforts for the 12 boys and their coach trapped in a flooded Thailand cave have continued, the world has been hoping for the entire group's safe return to the surface.
But after surviving the weather conditions, severe body stresses and unimaginable emotional distress of being trapped for days in dark, wet caverns, the 13 have more challenges ahead. All that time inside the caverns has exposed them to a dangerous and rare infection, often called "cave disease."
Officials said Tuesday morning local time at a press conference that at least two of the first four boys rescued are suffering from lung infections based blood tests, and all of them likely are infected though their tests are pending. However, none of them have a fever.
What is 'cave disease?'
Cave disease, also called speleonosis, is an infection with a fungus called Histoplasma capsulatum. It was first described in the 1940s as an “unusual” lung disease affecting a group of men camping in an abandoned storm cellar. The fungus is naturally found all over the world, thriving in settings ranging from the caves of Asia to the fertile riverbanks of the Mississippi River, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It grows in soil, aided by nutrients it gets from bat and bird droppings.
How is it detected?
Although Histoplasmosis is found in the environment, a person has to be tested to determine if they have the disease. Urine, lung, other tissue and blood samples can help detect the disease and X-rays or CT scans may also be needed.
In additional to physical exams, medical professionals will ask about personal health, travel history, including any time spent in caves, and symptoms.
How is it transmitted?
Anything that disturbs the ground like digging, or even just walking, can spread the fungus and the disease, according to the CDC. The fungus becomes airborne through its spores, which are so small they are undetectable to the human eye. It can then contaminate the air and enter the lungs of unassuming visitors.
Caves are known to be special breeding grounds for Histoplasmosis, with unique environments that can provide an ideal home for the fungus. With more than two million people each year exploring caves, or spelunking, it is becoming an increasingly common cause of infection.
Although the disease is transmitted via the air, it is not contagious from person to person. Some pets, like dogs and cats, can also become infected.
What are its signs and symptoms?
Detecting cave disease can be difficult and depends on many factors, including a person's baseline health and how much exposure he or she had to the fungus. A healthy person who’s been exposed may show no signs or symptoms at all.
Though most people exposed to Histoplasmosis don't get sick, those who do may look like they just have the flu with symptoms including fever, cough, extreme tiredness, chills, headache, body aches or chest pain. These symptoms usually appear between three and 17 days after a person breathes in the fungus.
A person with a weaker immune system, such as someone with uncontrolled HIV or undergoing cancer treatment, may develop more severe symptoms, such as confusion, as the disease spreads from the lungs to other parts of the body like the brain. Severe infections can cause death.
Treatment and preventing future cases
Cave disease resolves itself over time, without medication, for most people. However, for more severe symptoms or those with weaker immune systems, some antifungal medications may be required to treat the infection. Treatment can range from three months to one year.
Because the fungus is commonly found in many areas, it can be hard to avoid breathing in the spores. One way to decrease the risk is to avoid disturbing any surfaces with bird or bat droppings.
Anyone who chooses to explore caves can contact local cavers and public health departments to determine which caves are at higher risk for Histoplasmosis and consider wearing specialized dust-mist masks to minimize inhaling spores.
People with weakened immune systems should avoid cave exploring, which is considered a high-risk activity for them.
Petrina Craine is an emergency medicine resident physician in Oakland, California working in the ABC News Medical Unit.Copyright © 2018, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.
iStock/Thinkstock(WASHINGTON) -- President Donald Trump Monday slammed a New York Times article about U.S. opposition to a World Health Assembly resolution encouraging breastfeeding.
Calling the story “fake news,” he tweeted, “The U.S. strongly supports breast feeding but we don’t believe women should be denied access to formula. Many women need this option because of malnutrition and poverty.”
The president’s tweet seems to mischaracterize the resolution, which was introduced in May and sought to encourage member nations to support breastfeeding.
The resolution spoke to the health benefits of breastfeeding and included ways that member nations can support mothers who want to breastfeed.
It did not encourage them to limit access to formula.
The New York Times reported Sunday that the United States “upended deliberations” by arguing in the interest of infant formula manufacturers. The Times also reported that the United States threatened Ecuador, which was planning to introduce the measure, with trade sanctions and the removal of military aid.
In the face of the reported threat, Ecuador dropped the resolution. It was eventually sponsored by Russia, which, the Times reported, did not receive similar opposition from the United States.
In response to the Times’ story, Health and Human Services spokesperson Caitlin Oakley said “recent reporting attempts to portray the U.S. position at the recent World Health Assembly as ‘anti-breastfeeding’ are patently false.”
“The issues being debated, were not about whether one supports breastfeeding,” the statement reads. “The United States was fighting to protect women’s abilities to make the best choices for the nutrition of their babies.”
The difficulties that mothers face in breastfeeding have been well documented. A 2011 Surgeon General’s report cited a lack of maternity leave, social norms, and embarrassment as barriers to breastfeeding.
The New York Times article addresses shock from both the international and public health communities at the reported U.S. action.
In an emailed statement, Georges C. Benjamin, the executive director of the American Public Health Association, said his organization was “stunned” by the report.
“Fortunately, the resolution was adopted with few changes, but it is unconscionable for the U.S. or other government to oppose efforts that promote breastfeeding,” the statement continued.
Copyright © 2018, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.
Kelly Swink Sahady(FALLS CHURCH, Va.) -- Gal Gadot proved she really is wonder-ful after she took a break from filming the latest "Wonder Woman" movie to hang out with young patients at a children's hospital last week.
Gadot spent the day with staff and patients at Inova Children's Hospital in Falls Church, Virginia. During her visit, adorable photos were snapped of the actress and Karalyne Sahady -- a 7-month-old who has been battling leukemia during her five-month stay at Inova.
"I was in our room with one of our many doctors while Karalyne was hooked up to IV antibiotics, when in walked Wonder Woman, Gal Gadot, in full costume," Karalyne's mom, Kelly Swink Sahady, told "Good Morning America." "She had a huge smile on her face and walked right over to me. She asked if she could hold Karalyne and scooped her right in to her arms."
Sahady said she was "pretty star struck" by the encounter. Gadot's visit was a total surprise to the patients.
"I could tell her crew was in a hurry to keep moving, but she was not. She asked about our other kids and even brought in some toys for them," Sahady said.
"She did this out of the goodness of her heart, and that meant more than anything," Sahady continued. "We are Wonder Woman fans for life now."
A doctor who works at the hospital thanked Gadot on social media, tweeting, "You are a true Wonder Woman."Copyright © 2018, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.